Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease spread in several regions of the world
Dengue has become a global problem since the Second World War and is common in more than 110 countries. The incidence of dengue has grown dramatically around the world in recent decades. The actual numbers of dengue cases are underreported and many cases are misclassified. One recent estimate indicates 390 million dengue infections per year, of which 96 million manifest clinically (with any severity of the disease).
The dengue virus is transmitted by female mosquitoes mainly of the species Aedes aegypti and, to a lesser extent, Ae. albopictus. This mosquito also transmits chikungunya, yellow fever and zika. Dengue is widespread throughout the tropics, depending on rainfall, temperature and unplanned rapid urbanization. There are four known serotypes of the dengue virus. Recovery from infection by one provides lifelong immunity against that particular serotype. However, cross-immunity to the other serotypes after recovery is only partial and temporary. Subsequent infections by other serotypes increase the risk of developing severe dengue.
Dengue fever virus (DENV) is an RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae; genus Flavivirus. Other members of the same genus include zika virus, yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, and Japanese encephalitis virus.